Pregame resource exchange as a mechanism in overcoming the coordination dilemma: an experimental study
Economic Research Journal,2020,Vol 55,No. 03
Organizational contexts often require the efficient coordination of independent agents with strategic complementarities. However, given that hard work benefits all, team members tend to exert minimal effort. Thus, an important organizational question is how to improve the coordination within a team when it is not possible to directly incentivize employee effort. We observe a phenomenon that has not been noted in the literature. Specifically, when team members are stuck in a state of inefficient coordination, the available and remaining efforts that are not devoted to coordination can be considered a waste of resources. Although in reality, team members tend to allocate these efforts to other work, we believe that the remaining efforts could be an important tool for improving coordination. We use a novel design, by adding a pre-stage before the coordination game, to examine whether publicly revealing one’s efforts in other work has a positive effect in improving coordination. We study the experimental frameworks of Van Huyck et al. (1990), which comprise seven symmetric, Pareto-ranked, pure strategy equilibria on the main diagonal with four players. We replicate the design in Van Huyck et al. (1990) as the control treatment. In the main treatment, we add a pre-stage before the coordination game. In the pre-stage, the players are allowed to directly exchange some of their six units of effort for payment, with an exchange rate of 1:1. The units exchanged can be observed by the group members. The members then play the coordination game, in which they are allowed to use any of the remaining units. We use two additional treatments to separately test the effects of the two key features in the main treatment, making resource exchange observable and an endogenously generated strategy space. In the silent treatment, we implement the mechanism but hide the information on the subjects’ exchange choices. In the artificial treatment, we remove the exchange stage in the main treatment and exogenously give the subjects the same strategy spaces used in the main treatment. We find that extra pregame resource exchanges effectively improve the coordination, with 91.7% of the groups in the main treatment reaching coordination success, which is 50% higher than the control treatment. The performance in the silent treatment and artificial treatment is not significantly different from that in the control treatment. This implies that the better performance in the main treatment is attributable to the endogeneity of the strategy spaces formed by exchanging resources, and that sharing information on resource exchange makes forward induction feasible. Our paper makes three contributions to the literature. First, we use the available but remaining resources that are not used in the coordination task as a tool to improve coordination. Here, the efforts allocated to the pregame and coordination game are complementary. Hence, the resource exchange in the pregame can serve as an effective communication tool and truthfully signal an individual’s intention in the coordination task. Second, we propose a novel way of signaling, in which the cost of communication dynamically changes over the periods, which serves as the signal of the strategy in the coordination task. The cost of communication converges to zero when the team members achieve efficient coordination. Numerous studies have found that costless communication can be effective in improving coordination but with demanding requirements, such as in large groups when all of the members send signals. Different from the costless and costly communication discussed above, our results show that with the dynamic costs used in our mechanism, the team members are willing to signal their intentions for coordination. Third, although forward induction has been found to be an important tool, it introduces sample selection problems. In our study, all of the players participate in both the pregame and the coordination game. As a result, forward induction functions in all of the samples, which thus resolves the selection problem, and can explain 82.2% of the improved coordination. In summary, we propose a novel design to ensure the pregame communication confirms both the goal and the strategy. Our mechanism allows all players to conduct forward induction, and makes the players’ commitments reliable and enforceable.
Breakthrough of risk exploration for Class II shale oil in Chang 7 member of Yanchang Formation and its significance in Ordos Basin
China Petroleum Exploration,2020,Vol 25,No. 01
In 2019, the Changqing Oilfield Company deployed two horizontal wells to carry out the risk exploration test for shale oil (Class II shale oil) of thick shale interlayered with thin layers of siltstone and fine-sandstone in the 7 3 (Chang 7 3 member) member of Yanchang Formation in the Ordos Basin. Oil flows with high production of 121.38 t/d and 108.38 t/d have been obtained in the two horizontal wells, Well Chengye–1 and Well Chengye–2, which significantly promotes the exploration progress of Class II shale oil. In this paper, the cores, thin sections, well loggings, and geochemical data of two horizontal wells and the pilot well of Well Chengye-1 were mainly used to study the reservoir conditions and resource potential of Class II shale oil reservoirs in Chang 7 3 member. The results show that the reservoir type penetrated by horizontal sections of the two horizontal wells was mainly the thick shale interlayered with several thin siltstone and fine-sandstone layers. The perpendicular thickness of the sand body of single layer was 1–5 m. The lateral extension length of the sand body along the horizontal direction was mainly distributed in 25–50 m. The lateral wide of the sand body was 100–300 m. The distribution area of the single sand body was small. The reservoir types included intergranular pores, dissolution pores, intragranular pores, inter-crystalline pores, organic pores, and fractures. The radius of intergranular pores was concentrated in 0.1–3 μm, which is up to 21 μm. In the reservoirs penetrated by pilot section and horizontal sections, the high-conductive fractures and other fractures were well developed and distributed in E-W direction. The porosity of the sandstone reservoirs was 6%–12%, and the permeability was generally less than 0.3 mD. Shale reservoirs were of poor reservoir performance with porosity less than 2% and permeability less than 0.01 mD. By using methods such as rock pyrolysis, petroleum ether extraction, and dichloromethane extraction, we evaluated the movable shale oil resources in shale and sandstone in Chang 7 3 member within the area of 220 km 2 in Cheng-80 block. The preliminary evaluation results were (0.692–0.783) × 10 8 t. The distribution area of Class II shale oil in Chang 7 3 member in the Ordos Basin was about 1.5 × 10 4 km 2, and the prospective resources of Class II shale oil in Chang 7 3 member were 33 × 10 8 t.
Diagenesis characteristics and evolution of porosity of Chang7 tight sandstone reservoir in Dingbian Oilfield, Ordos Basin
Petroleum Geology and Recovery Efficiency,2020,Vol 27,No. 02
Chang7 reservoir in Dingbian Oilfield of Ordos Basin has abundant oil reserves, but its tightness and anisotropy restrict the effective exploration and development. Based on thin section and scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis, the rock compositions, pore types, physical properties, and diagenesis of Chang7 tight reservoir were studied. The porosity evolution model of tight sandstone reservoir was established at Chang7 by the diagenetic evolution events and geological comprehensive response to clarify the evolution of diagenesis and porosity. Meanwhile, the influences of diagenesis at different depths on the porosity were compared, which provided a theoretical basis to explore the relatively dominant reservoirs in the study area. The results show that the clastic rocks of Chang7 tight reservoirs in the study area are mainly feldspar sandstone and feldspar lithic sandstone, mainly containing clay minerals, carbonate, and other cement. The effective pore types are mainly secondary dissolved pores and residual intergranular pores, indicating a typical tight sandstone reservoir with ultra-low porosity and ultra-low permeability. The diagenetic evolution of Chang7 reservoir in the study area has gone through the stages of rapid compaction–early cementation, cementation–early dissolution, mainly dissolution–pore increase, compaction–late cementation, etc. This suggests that Chang7 oil reservoir in the research area is currently in the middle diagenetic stage A. Compaction is the main controlling factor leading to pore decrease and tight reservoir formation, with an average pore reduction of 20.4%. The average pore reduction by cementation is 14.02% and the cementation in the late stage is the key to forming tight reservoirs. The dissolution increases the porosity by 5.87% on average, which delays the densification. The sandstone compaction and cementation in the bottom of Chang7 1 and middle of Chang7 2 are weaker and the dissolution-induced porosity increment is greater, which indicate a preferred reservoir for exploration and development in this area.
Analysis on the Law of Traditional Chinese Medicine for the Prevention and Treatment of Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia in Provinces and Regions of China based on “Treatment in Accordance with Three Categories of Etiologic Factors”
Journal of Chinese Medicinal Materials,2020,No. 03
Objective: To analyze and summarize the rules of TCM treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) issued by nation, provinces, cities and autonomous regions, so as to provide reference for clinical use and development of new drugs. Methods: The basic oral prescriptions in the latest version of “Diagnosis and Treatment of the Pneumonia Caused by the Novel Coronavirus in TCM” issued by the Health Commission of the state, provinces, autonomous regions and State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine were collected and screened, and the Chinese Medicine Inheritance Assistance Platform (V2.5) was used to analyze the situation of evidence, the frequency of medicinal use in the prescription, and nature, flavor, meridian tropism, and the efficacy of the Chinese medicine with data mining. The association rules were used to analyze the prescription rules and the method of entropy clustering of complex systems was used to find the potential combination of medicinals. Results: There were 285 prescriptions for prevention and treatment of COVID-19 by TCM, involving 237 Chinese medicinals, including Radix Glycyrrhizae, Semen Armeniacae Amarum, Poria, Herba PogoStemonis, Fructus Forsythiae, and Pericarpium Cirri Reticulatae; the warm, cold and neutral medicinals were the most frequently used in the prescriptions; bitter, spicy and sweet flavors were mainly adopted; the meridian tropism was mainly concentrated in lung, stomach and spleen; the effects were mainly heat clearing, deficiency tonifying, exterior relieving, phlegm resolving, cough and asthma relieving, and dampness eliminating. The high-frequency medicinal combination included Radix Glycyrrhizae-Semen Armeniacae Amarum, Gypsum Fibrosum-Semen Armeniacae Amarum, Pericarpium Cirri Reticulatae-Poria, and Radix Glycyrrhizae-Radix Platycodonis. The combinations with confidence > 0.9 included “Gypsum Fibrosum, Herba Ephedrae-Semen Armeniacae Amarum, Semen Arecae-Fructus Tsaoko, and processed Herba Ephedrae-Semen Armeniacae Amarum; 16 core combinations and 8 new prescriptions were obtained. Conclusion: By studying the “Diagnosis and Treatment of the Pneumonia Caused by the Novel Coronavirus in TCM” issued by the nation and provinces, cities and autonomous regions, it has been objectively revealed that the disease is located in the lung, spleen and stomach, “dampness and toxin” are the core syndrome elements of the disease, “strengthening body resistance to eliminate pathogenic factors” and “treatment in accordance with three categories of etiologic factors” are the overall treatment principles.
2020,Vol 35,No. 07
As the role of think tanks in the process of advancing the modernization of the national governance system and governance capacity becomes increasingly prominent, the exploration of the paradigm, theories, and methodologies of think tank research becomes an important issue. This study raises the double helix structure of think tank research, which is a framework that not only conceptualizes think tank research but also provides practical guidance for think tank research. The outer circulation of the double helix structure conceptualizes the research process into question decomposing, interdisciplinary research, and regression to the true question. The inner circulation of the double helix structure is composed of process convergence method (Data–Information–Intelligence–Solution, DIIS) and logic layer method (Mechanism–Impact–Policy–Solution, MIPS), which separately target research process and research logic. The internal coupling relationship and the time–space domain are further analyzed. Finally, the theoretical value of the double helix structure of think tank research is raised, which can be considered as a new paradigm in conceptualizing and conducting think tank research.