Sponsor(s):Chinese Academy of Cultural Heritage
6 issues per year
Journal official website:http://www.cach.org.cn/tabid/206/Default.aspx
Study on the Strategies of Protection and Utilization of Qingdao-Jinan Railway Industrial Heritage Based on the Transition to New From Old Economic Engines
China Cultural Heritage,2022,No. 03
Qingdao-Jinan Railway is the first railway in Shandong Province. It was once an important pillar of Shandong Province’s economic and social development. It was listed in the first batch of China’s industrial heritage protection list in 2018. The cities along the railway, such as Jinan, Qingdao, Zibo, and Weifang, are the core and demonstration areas of the Shandong Province comprehensive test area for transition to new from old economic engines. In order to understand the current situation of the remains of the whole line, the field investigation team of historical remains of the Qingdao-Jinan Railway carried out a comprehensive linear field investigation and research on the Qingdao-Jinan Railway. From the investigation and research, it was found that due to the failure of the government and people to understand the great value and utilization potential of the Qingdao-Jinan Railway, it was facing problems such as worrying protection status, lack of research funds and limited ideas for utilization. Starting from the idea of the transition to new from old economic engines, this paper explored in depth the social and cultural value of the Qingdao-Jinan Railway as a heritage corridor in the new era, and clarified its significance in carrying emotional memory, inheriting history and culture, and enhancing social cohesion through methods such as investigation and interviews, questionnaires, statistics of popularity of Internet topics. Finally, this paper put forward the protection and utilization strategies for the Qingdao-Jinan Railway. The specific countermeasures are as follows: giving the legal protection status to historical relics along the railway; building the cultural brand of the Qingdao-Jinan Railway; supporting academic research to promote the transition to new from old economic engines; and encouraging investment attraction and supporting development and utilization. At present, the protection of the Qingdao-Jinan Railway is carried out in limited aspects and ways. This paper emphasized the particularity and diversity of the Qingdao-Jinan Railway as a linear cultural heritage. It was proposed that the protection of remains along the Qingdao-Jinan Railway should be considered as a whole, and the overall protection should be carried out in combination with the cities and natural scenery along the railway and effectively integrated into the overall plan of local social and economic development, so as to realize the transformation from limited protection and overall protection and all-round symbiotic protection coordinated with the development of cities along the line. This paper put heritage protection and urban symbiosis in the context of transition to new from old economic engines, focused on the social value of the Qingdao-Jinan Railway, and attempted to provide new research ideas for the protection and utilization of the Qingdao-Jinan Railway industrial heritage. It will help retain the development trace of Shandong Province in modern history, promote the regional and cultural identity of residents along the Qingdao-Jinan Railway, and maintain the unique charm of cities and villages along the railway, thus contributing to realizing the rebirth and a leap in development of the century-old Qingdao-Jinan Railway. In this way, it can bring far-reaching social, economic and cultural benefits, and inject new impetus into the transition to new from old economic engines in Shandong Province.
Analysis and study on of the layout of site selection and defense system construction of the Shanhai Pass
China Cultural Heritage,2022,No. 03
With the double attributes of cultural relic architecture and historic ruins, the Great Wall now only maintains the major architectural bodies such as continuous walls and watchtowers even in the best-preserved sections, whereas its complete defense system, along with the plan, design, and operating mechanism of the system, has long lost in history. The present heritage information of the Great Wall for travelers and visitors stays on the level of existing remains, which cannot reveal the specific defense strategy and detailed operating mechanism. With the Shanhai Pass, the key military area which lies at the crucial juncture of the former frontier garrison districts of Jizhen and Liaodong in the section of the Ming Dynasty Great Wall as an example, this article attempts to make a straight and precise restoration of the Shanhai Pass in its site selection, construction, amelioration, and operation, based on ancient textual documents, the geological maps and aerial photos in the early 20th century, as well as ancient map drawings, modern satellite images, and photos of the current frontier lines. According to our analysis, even as early as its inception, the Shanhai Pass has gained an advantageous position of thrusting into the crucial point of mountains and standing in the rear of former defensive walls and prior to Shihe Garrison Station. It implemented the water management strategy featuring diversification of water sources, flow control through dredging, and comprehensive utilization of surrounding areas, and a district layout is thus formed where spots are connected into a line, fighting forces are averagely distributed, and the scale is appropriate. Towns within the pass area all exhibit explicit thinking of site selection and construction strategy in the aspects of the position, connection with other spots in the defense line, and backup combination. Their holistic structure characterized by the integration of spots and lines, clear priorities, and symmetrical design displays remarkable integrity and scientificity. It is such a scientifically, meticulously, and appropriately arranged military defense complex that has evolved over two hundred years following the changes in the frontier status and military landscape. The construction of the town of passes initially aimed to protect against the Northern Yuan Dynasty, protect the capital city from encirclement, and establish an overall joint defense. The signaling system has gradually become a network featuring early signaling, three-dimensional surveillance, and the frontier defense line. The defense system has kept improving from getting the grip of the path by besieging the town, to subduing enemies from aside, and to contriving the system of defense lines. In this way, instead of being completed overnight, the holistic defense district of Shanhai Pass is established and improved step by step from the stage of plan implementation to the final fruition through relentless discussions and selection. As to the research and exploration of the site selection layout of Shanhai Pass, we made a comprehensive analysis of textual and graphic data in various periods, sorted out the site selection concept and spatial layout of the pass defense system, and revealed typical cross sections of history and the dynamic evolution process. Based on that, we delved into the operating mechanism of facilities like affiliated passes, watchtowers, and secret doors, and made a visual demonstration. The original appearance of the passes is therefore fully manifested, along with the Chinese nation’s wisdom in the smart use of natural conditions and turning disadvantageous into favorable. We hope that such wisdom will play an important role in raising public cognition, facilitating tourist value, and offering enlightenment to modern urban construction.
Measures for the Transformation and Rebranding of Railway Industrial Heritage: A Case Study of Jiangsu Province
China Cultural Heritage,2022,No. 03
In recent years, China’s railway authority shuts down several railway stations every year as a result of comprehensive factors such as railway rerouting, train acceleration, and urban expansion. The increasing abandoned railway industrial facilities have gradually become the largest and most typical industrial heritage in China. Compared with developed countries in Europe and the United States, however, China lacks the awareness of the overall protection of railway industrial heritage, faces a mismatch between the local governments and the railway authority in railway heritage protection, pays more attention to hardware protection than software arrangement and emphasizes explicit protection over conventional protection. Take the railway industrial heritage in Jiangsu Province as an example. There are 66 old-fashioned railway stations along the original Shanghai-Nanjing Railway, Longhai Railway, Tientsin-Pukow Railway, and Nanjing-Wuhu Railway, including 15 registered railway industrial heritage sites at different levels. Although they have lost all or part of their original functions for railway transport, their historical and cultural value is inestimable. As a kind of important resource shared by the railway industry and regional development, railway industrial heritage plays an irreplaceable role in carrying forward the historical culture and highlighting the value of the city. The rapid development of China’s economy has created a rare opportunity for the protection and transformation of the railway industry heritage. It is necessary to improve the cooperative relationship between the railway industry and local governments and reasonably match the objective demands of the cultural and tourism industries and regional development. Based on the railway network and layout of heritage sites, Jiangsu Province can be divided into three regions: the southern Jiangsu region, the Xuzhou-Lianyungang region, and the Nanjing region. Due to the regional difference in economy, culture and the state of cultural heritage, region-specific strategies for heritage protection, development, and rebranding should be adopted. The railway heritage sites in the southern Jiangsu region are mainly scattered in four prefecture-level cities: Zhenjiang, Changzhou, Wuxi, and Suzhou. In accordance with the local demands for economic and tertiary industry development, we can increase the investment in heritage protection and build railway site parks, railway cultural tourism towns, railway theme parks and cultural and creative industrial parks to transform these industrial heritages into landmarks along the Shanghai-Nanjing Railway. Meanwhile, the industrial heritage sites within the Xuzhou-Lianyungang region can be rebranded based on the concepts of transportation such as canal transport and the Belt and Road Initiative. In particular, we can integrate the railway resources along the canal in Xuzhou city and develop tourism demonstration zones combining both canal transport and railway culture. In Lianyungang city, we can make use of the historical and cultural buildings such as the Longhai Railway History Museum, the Lianyungang Port History Museum, and the Lianyun Old Town to develop experiential cultural tourism zones under the title of Eastern Bridgehead of the New Eurasian Land Bridge as the landmarks of a harbor city with fantastic mountain and ocean view. For the Nanjing region, we can apply the new railway concept of “one city with two wings.” The “one city” refers to the development of heritage protection bases for science education such as railway museums and exhibition halls through comprehensive integration of railway heritage projects across Nanjing, especially those on the Tientsin-Pukow Railway, Shanghai-Nanjing Railway, and Nanjing-Wuhu Railway. Given that the railway heritage sites are scattered on both sides of the Yangtze River in Nanjing, the “two wings” refers to the restoration of the old-fashioned transportation network across the Yangtze River, including railway stations, railway ports, ferries and railway tracks, so as to connect the significant heritage resources along the railways, and develop tourism routes based on urban railway industry with unique characteristics of the Republic of China era.
The Investigation and Evaluation of Industrial Heritage Taking Technological Process as the Core: A Case Study of the Concentrator Mill of Gejiu
China Cultural Heritage,2022,No. 03
Technological value is one of the most important values of industrial heritage. As the outline of the arrangement of all the equipment and buildings, the technological process matters more than any single element of the industrial heritage. However, the current research on industrial heritage is lack of pragmatic methods to make an efficient study of technological process, which results in incomplete value evaluation. Therefore, the selective preservation of buildings and equipment is out of the context of production process, hampering the interpretation of core values of industrial heritage. This paper used the Concentrator Mill of Gejiu as an example to evaluate its technological value through the research of development history of technologies at the micro level, and the investigation of the current situation of the factory, which could be used as a reference to make preservation policies and explore the methods to conduct investigation and evaluation of industrial heritage taking technological process as the core. This paper referred to the evolution of technological process in previous literature and the interview of a veteran worker, to illustrate the key issues such as the constitutions, functions, as well as the overlapping and differences of the two sections of the factory. Through comparison with the industrial heritage of similar types, it was found that the Concentrator Mill of Gejiu was unique because of its gravity concentration, where the representative processes such as tin-rich system, single copper system, and paragenetic mineral system remained. Based on the current situation of buildings and equipment recorded in the field investigation, this paper draws the diagram of the 3D model to illustrate the correspondence between the technological process of different periods and the existing buildings and equipment, and to classify the buildings and equipment into three types of preservation: retaining intact, renovating for utilization, and demolishing/renewing. Besides, it is also necessary to examine the evolution of technological process in the social and historical contexts, in order to make an accurate heritage evaluation. The Concentrator Mill of Gejiu was the first mechanized concentrator mill with gravity concentration in China reflecting the technological progress from traditional mineral separation to modern mechanized production. It is the evidence for that the Tin industry of modern times in Gejiu developed rapidly, so the history of southern Yunnan became part of world history. What is the most important is that the factory symbolizes the very hard start of Chinese modern industry faced with domestic strife and foreign aggression, where the struggling spirit and hardworking tradition were born. This paper contributes to the existing literature by offering a new method of industrial heritage investigation and evaluation, and discussing the way to evaluate the historical value and social value on the basis of technical progress reflected by the heritage. This paper also offers a new preservation strategy centered on the evolving technological process and taking the current situation of heritage into consideration.
Summary Report on the Conference Held for the International Day for Monuments and Sites 2022: Heritage and Climate
China Cultural Heritage,2022,No. 03
In recent years, the impact of climate change has escalated, which has caused extreme weather, significantly influencing human beings’ production, daily activities, culture, and many other fields. Heritage protection and management have been facing many great challenges caused by climate change and its secondary disasters. Therefore, it is necessary to review the potential links between climate change and heritage protection, summarize experience in responding to climate-related disasters and risks, and communicate about methods for addressing climate change, all of which serve as the important foundation for promoting heritage protection in China in the context of climate change. This paper reviewed fifteen academic reports presented at a conference held for the International Day for Monuments and Sites 2022: Heritage and Climate. In addition, it presented the findings mainly in the following three areas from a multidisciplinary, multi-angle perspective: links between heritage and climate at a macro level; practices and measures adopted for protecting and managing heritage as responses to climate change, and methodologies for applying knowledge and technologies relating to heritage protection to respond to climate change. Based on the review, this paper arrived at the following conclusions. Climate change is not just a natural environmental change, but also closely linked to the evolution, survival and development of human beings and other species, shaping human beings’ culture, production and daily activities. To understand climate change has great implications for understanding the value of heritage and promoting heritage protection and management. Currently, much research has been carried out globally, including in China, on heritage protection in the context of climate change and on how to respond to climate change, contributing to the existing various guidelines. Moreover, there are also specific studies targeting at climate-related disasters and risks. On the basis of previous work, Chinese professionals and managers from representative heritage sites heavily affected by climate change have established warning systems to prevent and reduce the impact of disasters, and have improved the systems for preventing and managing disasters and risks based on local heritage features and their rich experience in heritage protection, repair, and maintenance. Interdisciplinary communications about the experience in heritage protection across regions are necessary for improving heritage protection in the context of climate change. This conference as a response to international heritage scholars’ concerns is also an effective attempt to promote collaboration across disciplines, including heritage, meteorology, and ecology. It is of great significance to improve heritage protection in the context of climate change, which can help to promote the development of ecological civilization and progresses in Chinese culture protection.
Tracing Supplementary Drawings for Gongcheng Zuofa Zeli(Structural Regulations) by the Ministry of Works of the Qing Dynasty by Zhu Qiqian as Editor-in-chief
China Cultural Heritage,2022,No. 03
There are two sets of drawing retained regarding the Supplementary Drawings for Gongcheng Zuofa Zeli (Structural Regulations) by the Ministry of Works of the Qing Dynasty by Zhu Qiqian as editor-in-chief in the early Society for the Study of Chinese Architecture. One was under Zhu Qiqian’s editorship, showing strong traditional craftsmanship background, while the other was by Liang Sicheng, sublating Zhu Qiqian’s Supplementary Drawings based on modern architecture paradigms. The latter has been published recently, but the former has not been accessed by academics for its details and remains unclear for its whereabouts. The author analyzed the material storage after the dissolution of the Society for the Study of Chinese Architecture and looked through the archives at the Chinese Academy of Cultural Heritage. Finally, he found the inventory and drawings of Supplementary Drawings for Gongcheng Zuofa Zeli (Structural Regulations) by the Ministry of Works of the Qing Dynasty by Zhu Qiqian as editor-in-chief, and then made a brief introduction of its composition and content. The preliminary analysis reveals that the progress in the normativity and scientificity of cartography in Supplementary Drawings reflects the traditional craftsmanship’s response to modern discipline norms and the corresponding self-improvement in the early 20th century.
The Situation, Problems and Countermeasures of the Safety of Cultural Relics during the 14th Five-Year Plan Period
China Cultural Heritage,2022,No. 03
The safety of cultural relics in current China still faces multiple risks and challenges including the offence conducted by the legal person of cultural relics, crimes of theft and illegal excavation, damages to cultural relics by fire, construction violation, natural hazards and extreme weather events. Problems remain for the safety management of cultural relics as follows. (1) The awareness of safety of cultural relics is low in some places and the responsibilities of the local government entity are not fully implemented. (2) The duty of supervision for the safety of cultural relics is not duly fulfilled and the examination and approval processes are not lawfully carried out in some places. (3) There are difficulties in law enforcement for cultural relics due to the incompleteness of standards for its supervision and accountability. (4) It is imperative to resolve the obvious problems in issues like the arrangement of firefighting equipment, risk monitoring and warning, and the ability of emergency response. Facing the new situation, to ensure the safety of cultural relics and to guard against possible hazards, we will have to stick to the theme of high quality development, fully implement the new development philosophy, and maintain the balance between development and security. We should think in terms of the rule of law and think about worst-case scenarios, and adhere to proactive approaches including taking prevention as the priority, combining crackdown and prevention together, and taking measures at the very source. Keeping question-oriented, we can implement targeted measures and push ahead solutions to problems systematically. Corresponding countermeasures should be formulated in the aspects such as fulfilling government entities’ responsibilities, strengthening the law-based management of cultural relics and improving efficiency of law enforcement for heritage protection, intensifying the cooperation across sections and departments for a long-acting mechanism of joint supervision, constructing security facilities to raise the capacity of technical precaution, and taking corresponding measures to enhance the overall capacity of preventing hazards to cultural relics with more supports of technology, so that the management responsibility for the safety of cultural relics could be solidly fulfilled and precautions for its worst-case scenarios could be well taken.
China Cultural Heritage,2022,No. 01
At the moment, China is still transitioning from a traditional society to a modern society. During this process, how to strike a balance between the needs for social and economic development and the needs for the inheritance of cultural traditions has become one of the key issues needing to be addressed. The opinions and conclusions of this paper mainly fall into three aspects. First, the village is the basic unit of traditional Chinese rural society and the traditional village is the spatial carrier of production and communication activities implemented by the villagers. According to the difference in spatial forms, traditional village space can be divided into physical space and non-physical space. Second, the difference in settlement pattern has a shaping effect on the cultural space of a traditional village, while the discrepancy in notions between the Gemeinschaft (traditional community) and the Gesellschaft (modern society) has created a huge barrier for the conservation of traditional villages. Third, since humans are the key actors connecting the physical space and the non-physical space, only by retaining the indigenous people in their home village can such a traditional village be conserved. Therefore, it is necessary to balance the allocation of resources and improve the human settlement environment by stepping up infrastructure construction and public services, to enhance the internal driving force of production by cultivating local brands, to secure the production and transport channels by improving road conditions and means of transportation, and to conserve the historical features of the traditional villages by adhering to the principle of holism. By reviewing and summarizing the types and characteristics of traditional village space, this paper rethinks the types of it and the fundamental factors that lead to the conflict between the tradition and reality in development. On this basis, this paper analyzes and suggests feasible ways to alleviate the conflict.
China Cultural Heritage,2022,No. 02
Situated in Zhaoxian County, Hebei Province, Anji Bridge dates back to the Daye period of the Sui Dynasty (605–618). As the oldest and best-preserved open-spandrel segmental stone arch bridge with the longest span in the world, it has a far-reaching impact on the bridge construction of later generations across the world. Throughout history, Anji Bridge had been hit hard by frequent floods and earthquakes and damaged during wartime. During the renovation project of Anji Bridge from 1952 to 1958, the Beijing Commission for the Preservation of Cultural Relics was responsible for arrangement of the survey and preliminary design of the project, as well as the investigation, design and installation of the guardrail panels. In addition, the Zhaoxian Anji Bridge Renovation Committee was established in Zhaoxian County, Hebei Province with the Hebei Provincial Highway Administration Bureau in charge of the design and construction of bridge reinforcement. In the process of designing and constructing the renovation project, Chinese experts on cultural heritage conservation and those on bridge engineering carried out a detailed survey of the bridge and constantly improved the technical solutions through many discussions. Finally, the installation of the bridge structure and that of the guardrail panels were completed in November 1956 and November 1958, respectively. In the renovation project of Anji Bridge, the arches were consolidated by means of pressure grouting and concreting reinforced concrete slabs on the keystones, the collapsed voussoirs on the east side were restored and the damaged minor voussoirs were replaced. Several stone components, including those under the guardrails (Difushi), those on either side of the bridge (Yangtianshi), and those on the bridge floor (Qiaomianshi), were reproduced. After in-depth excavation and study of the guardrail panels from the riverbed, the theme and arrangement of the guardrail panels and pillars were ascertained, and accordingly they were reproduced with new stone materials and installed. The addition of a large number of new stone materials to the bridge in the renovation project also triggered the controversy between “new” and “old” in the protection of cultural heritage. Therefore, Mr. Liang Sicheng put forward the idea of renovating the old as old (namely, renovating ancient buildings while retaining their original style). Based on the comprehensive collation and study of archives on the renovation project of Anji Bridge which are collected at the Chinese Academy of Cultural Heritage, this paper briefly introduces the architecture of the bridge and its state of preservation before the renovation, and reviews the formation of the relevant design scheme and implementation of the project. Meanwhile, in view of disputes over the project, this paper analyzes various insurmountable technical difficulties within the project, and suggests that the relevant analyses and understanding should be conducted from the perspective of the times.
Archaeological Imagination as A Cultural Representation: Case Studies of Public Archaeology Based on Cultural Studies
China Cultural Heritage,2022,No. 02
Archaeologists have a fundamental cognition of correct and real archaeology. However, the phenomena discussed in this paper are a kind of archaeological cognition that is partially correct and real in the public context. They can help us reflect on the construction mechanism of archaeological cognition and even the discourse structure of social culture. Based on the critical thinking of suspending value judgment, this paper refers to these archaeological cognitive phenomena as archaeological imagination for conducting cultural studies on three sets of cases to reveal the relevant operation mode of representation, a term coined by Stuart Hall. It aims to explore a new approach and perspective in China’s public archaeology and attempts to unleash the archaeological imagination by reexamining archaeology itself. In Zibo Museum, for instance, there is an exhibition of the burial pits accompanying the Tomb of the Prince of Qi in the Western Han Dynasty, including the partial restoration of the archaeological excavation site in Pit No.5 that demonstrates the scene of humble archaeologists working under primitive conditions. Most Chinese archaeologists still imagine their subjectivity as “crawling in the field and groping around.” This indicates that the archaeological industry stands at the intersection of modernity and pre-modernity with Chinese characteristics in the process of modernization since the reform and opening up, blending urban China and rural China as a result of the urban-rural dual structure. In recent years, the common archaeological theme parks in China usually provide the family activity of simulation of dinosaur fossil excavation, which is nominally archaeological. Here, the basic principles of modernity, such as scientific spirit and social division of labor, are imperceptibly embedded in the children’s cognition, and the self-identity of the Chinese middle class is thereby strengthened and inherited. Nonetheless, the case study of the Camp Discovery at Shanghai Disneyland reveals that the deideologization in the archaeological theme parks is not a natural selection. Meanwhile, contemporary American artist Daniel Arsham creates Excavation Site 212 as a highly realistic archaeological site in the year of 3019. Despite its highlight on the futuristic sense of archaeological excavations, the archaeology reflected in this work is closely associated with the potential peril. On the one hand, the artist expresses his suspicion of modernity by means of archaeology that represents modernity. On the other hand, he turns such western-style postmodernist reflection on modernity into the cultural capital that leads to class division.