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Taking occupation as vocation, from secondary to intermediary: the value remodeling and oriented transformation of secondary vocational education
Communication of Vocational Education,2022,No. 05
At present, China’s secondary vocational education is facing severe challenges, and its value and orientation need to be re-evaluated. In this regard, the existing research mainly holds two views. One is the elimination theory, which holds that the elimination of secondary vocational education is the inevitable result of social and economic development and industrial transformation. At the same time, based on the consideration of educational equity and other dimensions, secondary vocational education should also withdraw from the historical stage. The other one is the remodeling theory, which holds that the basic position of secondary vocational education must be upheld and strengthened, but this insistence and reinforcement is not conservative, but means remodeling, innovation and transformation. As a result, the latter opened up the exploration of value remodeling and oriented transformation of secondary vocational education. In the exploration of value remodeling and oriented transformation of secondary vocational education, existing studies have been accustomed to taking social and economic development and students’ career development as the value basis for remodeling secondary vocational education, and correspondingly endowing secondary vocational education with the dual intertwined orientation of employment and further education. However, these explorations are unsuccessful. On the one hand, based on social and economic development, secondary vocational education continues to be a supplement to social and economic development, and it is difficult to escape from the low-end dilemma. On the other hand, students’ diversified career development cannot guarantee that secondary vocational education will win the competition with other types of education, and make it lose its own characteristics in the diversified development. Different from the existing research, this paper no longer starts from secondary vocational education, but from the secondary vocational education itself, seeking to remodel the value basis of secondary vocational education and change its orientation. Through the etymological investigation of the word occupation, this paper holds that vocation is the original meaning of occupation. Taking occupation as vocation means that occupation should be in line with the pursuit and achievement of one’s mission. Occupation, as a personal mission, should be altruistic and have the value of serving others and society. In the sense that all legitimate occupations can become personal missions or vocation, all occupations should be equal and worthy of people’s respect. Therefore, secondary vocational education with occupation as vocation should break away from the original position of training the labor force required by specific industry, and make itself a kind of vocation education, which is committed to leading students’ occupation choices to the level of vocation and promoting the equality between occupation and society. By changing the perspective of understanding secondary, that is, we can understand the secondary of secondary vocational education no longer by the secondary thinking in the hierarchy, but by the intermediary thinking in the relationship. This paper holds that intermediary is the proper meaning of secondary. The transformation from secondary to intermediary means that secondary vocational education is a kind of vocational education that connects the occupation and the individual, bridges the gap between vocational education system and other types of education, breaks the barriers within modern school education and resolves the gap between modern school education and society. Therefore, its position is no longer basic education in vocational education, but vocational education in basic education.
On the function orientation and reform measures of vocational education in China’s green development of economy and society
Communication of Vocational Education,2022,No. 05
Driven by the five new development concepts and national strategies, the green development of China’s economy and society is gradually deepening. Vocational education is a type of education that has a direct effect on economic and social development. Then, what is the logical relationship between vocational education and the green development of the economy and society, what requirements will the green development of the economy and society put forward for vocational education, and what can vocational education do to contribute to the green development of the economy and society? These problems are new and important social and educational issues that need to be solved urgently, and are also the focuses of this study. This study adopts the method of logic to qualitatively demonstrate the relationship between vocational education and the green development of economy and society, and the key points of vocational education reform practice. Firstly, the characteristics of the talents needed for the green development of economy and society are analyzed by analytical method, and it is proved that the talent demand for the green development of economy and society and the talent supply of vocational education can be matched in three aspects of green development cultural concept, green skills and green practice, which is the basic theoretical and logical basis for vocational education to promote the green development of economy and society. Secondly, using the deductive method, based on the social function deduction of vocational education, the function orientation of vocational education in the process of economic and social green development is obtained. Finally, using deductive and inductive methods, based on the key points of vocational education reform put forward in the policy documents such as the National Plan for Implementation of Vocational Education Reform, the practical key points of the green reform of vocational education that should be emphasized in order to promote the green development of economy and society are obtained. It is found that the basic logical relationship between the green development of vocational education and the green development of economy and society can be represented by a relationship diagram. In the adjustment of function orientation, vocational education should pay attention to inheriting ecological culture, highlight the cultivation of green skills talents and strengthen the development of green social services. In terms of key reform measures, vocational education should enhance its initiative to meet the needs of national economic and social green development, form a mature training system for green skilled personnel by connecting with green vocational standards and green production process, and optimize and integrate educational resources from a macro perspective to realize the green development of the vocational education system. The research and conclusion of the logical relationship between vocational education and economic and social green development in this paper makes it clear from a new perspective that the development of vocational education can really play a role in economic and social green development. The exploration of the key reform measures of vocational education is conducive to helping educational policy makers find a grasp to promote the green reform of vocational education, and can also play a role in further academic exchanges on this subject.
Communication of Vocational Education,2022,No. 06
Higher vocational colleges have the basic functions of talent training, technological innovation, and social service. Against the background of the double high-level plan (a national development plan for higher vocational colleges and disciplines), the social service function of higher vocational colleges has attracted increasing attention. The author investigates the social service content of major higher vocational colleges, especially those listed in the double high-level plan, in order to find out their practice status and existing problems and try to put forward suggestions, thus promoting the social service function of higher vocational colleges. It is found that there are four types of social service practices in higher vocational colleges. The first one is to carry out national strategic services. Internally, higher vocational education has played an important role in poverty alleviation, and many colleges have implemented precise poverty alleviation programs such as Xinjiang and Tibet assisting programs. Externally, higher vocational colleges have played an important role in promoting the Belt and Road Initiative, assisting Chinese enterprises to go global and exporting Chinese skill culture and craftsman spirit. The second one is to provide technology research and development services. Some higher vocational colleges actively undertake national, provincial, and ministerial scientific research projects, build scientific research service platforms based on major advantages, and help small and medium-sized enterprises to transform and upgrade through patent transfer and joint research between schools and enterprises. The third one is to carry out social training services. In order to cultivate high-quality skilled workers for enterprises, provide vocational education teacher training for teachers, and provide vocational training opportunities for the public, higher vocational colleges play multiple roles as skill trainers, professional qualification appraisers, and teacher trainers. The fourth one is to provide lifelong education services. With the diversification of service groups and the enrichment of service content, more and more higher vocational colleges have begun to cooperate with various educational institutions such as primary and secondary schools, communities, and universities for the elderly to provide targeted vocational education courses for groups of different ages such as vocational enlightenment education and community education for the elderly. Compared with ordinary colleges, higher vocational colleges have their unique advantages in social service. This paper discusses the special value of social service in higher vocational colleges from four aspects. It has the educational value of cultivating high-quality skilled talents and providing vocational education support. It has the economic value of promoting local economic development and helping industrial transformation and upgrading. It has the social value of promoting the construction of a learning society and promoting educational equity. It has the cultural value of spreading professional culture and promoting craftsman spirit. At the same time, there are some problems in the current social service practice in higher vocational colleges, such as ideas that need to be improved, uneven service quality, and unreasonable content and form. The author tries to put forward the development countermeasures from three dimensions: finding the orientation of running a school and returning to the initial intention of educating people; strengthening school-enterprise cooperation and forming a joint development force; and creating a service brand and practicing quality standardization.
PEST analysis of vocational education effectively empowering basic education in the background of “double reduction”
Communication of Vocational Education,2022,No. 06
“Double reduction” (reducing the burden of homework and off-campus training for compulsory education students) is a hot topic of education in China, which is related to the reform of educational concepts and education methods. It not only put forward new requirements for basic education, but also propose urgent requirements for vocational education to effectively empower basic education. Vocational education should bear the mission and responsibility bravely, make the development strategy, and effectively enable basic education. At present, most of the relevant research focuses on the self-development of vocational education against the background of “double reduction,” but the literature on how to effectively empower basic education is relatively scarce, especially lacking systematic and comprehensive research. This paper adopts a literature research method and a PEST analysis model to comprehensively analyze the political, economic, social, and technological factors against the background of “double reduction,” and finds that the macro environment provides relatively favorable conditions for vocational education to effectively empower basic education. To be specific, education policies, laws and regulations provide a stronger guarantee for the effective empowerment of vocational education and basic education. The investment structure of vocational education funds is unbalanced, and the consumption demand for non-disciplinary education is expected to increase. The social concept of vocational education is expected to be reshaped, both “double reduction” and the market need vocational education to promote the reasonable separation and coordinated development of general education and vocational education. Vocational education in rural areas has more prominent resource advantages to promote education equity. Online training for primary and secondary schools and information construction of teachers urgently need to strengthen artificial intelligence (AI) + vocational education, and the resource sharing mechanism between the two needs to be built. Therefore, vocational education should strengthen the type orientation and self-construction, and reshape the view of vocational education by virtue of promising and reducing. It should focus on basic education in rural areas, provide career planning guidance, strengthen student development and incentive system, explore vocational education and open a variety of vocational education institutions for students to visit and experience. It should also strengthen the construction of labor education, enrich the forms of labor education, and cultivate students’ labor skills and virtues. Moreover, vocational education should share the resource library learning account with basic education, and build a special resource cloud platform for both sides; optimize their own investment structure, actively provide training services to attract multiple investors; provide orderly assistance to non-academic education and training programs, and strengthen the development of education and training personnel and courses; actively integrate into after-school service, enrich service activities, innovate service forms and optimize service quality; and carry forward the advantages of AI + vocational education, scientifically manage online training, and strengthen the information construction of basic education teachers. Compared with previous studies, this paper mainly has two innovations. First, the PEST analysis model is adopted to enrich the research perspective of existing research results. Secondly, it makes a more comprehensive and systematic discussion on how and why vocational education can effectively empower basic education against the background of “double reduction,” which is different from the previous research on the development trend of vocational education and vocational education empowering basic education in a certain aspect. To some extent, this article illustrates the theoretical premise of why vocational education can effectively empower basic education against the background of “double reduction,” and reveals the realization path of effective empowerment. It is helpful for vocational education to make more diversified and more concrete practical actions to effectively empower basic education against the background of “double reduction” and promote their coordinated development.
Communication of Vocational Education,2022,No. 06
The impact of data and data technology on established business models and forms in various industries has been widely noticed. Talent training in vocational education must also adapt to the changes and adjustments brought by digital technology, and empowering student training through data elements makes students can be more adaptable while growing up in increasingly complex work and life situations. However, most of the existing studies in China focus on the mechanism research at the academic level and the practical exploration of digital campus construction in vocational colleges, but lack the mining, analysis, and utilization of comprehensive big data centered on students’ growth, and the value of data empowerment for students’ growth needs to be further explored. This paper follows the technical route of logical interpretation-value analysis-predicament analysis-path proposal. According to the connotation definition of data empowerment, the logic to interpret the purpose of empowerment is to endow students’ growth data with meaning and relevance through the innovation of platform scenes and the application of technical methods, so as to show the internal state of students’ growth and development and the external value of connecting students’ growth fields. However, vocational college students’ growth involves many influencing factors. On the premise of following the teaching rules of vocational education, the realization logic of data empowerment should run through the whole process of students’ growth, creating more use value for students’ growth. The specific manifestations are as follows. Data sharing in different fields supports student-centered learning, predicts students’ growth needs, supports teachers’ lean teaching, conveys community feedback in real-time to stimulate students’ personality development, optimizes multi-field resources, and improves the scientific nature of school management. In fact, due to the weak foundation of informatization construction in vocational colleges, although a large number of data are collected, they are in a fragmented and isolated predicament, and it is difficult to effectively exert the empowering value in the proper state. The specific manifestations are as follows. The lack of comprehensive data makes it difficult to support scientific management. Insufficient data structure and analysis make it difficult to empower lean and personalized education. The correlation analysis of all kinds of data is insufficient, and it is difficult to construct a dynamic incentive mechanism. Based on the logical value of data empowerment for vocational college students’ growth and its existing predicament, this paper finally puts forward the specific empowerment path: building a data center to form an interactive and shared integrated data platform; cleaning and classifying data to design a structured index system of students’ behavior data; and correlating diagnosis to shape a dynamic incentive mechanism of growth data. This paper interprets and reviews the intrinsic logic and value significance of data empowerment and vocational college students’ growth, and puts forward the realization path of data empowerment for vocational college students’ growth according to the existing predicament. It comprehensively shows the future picture of data empowerment reshaping vocational college students’ training mode, which helps teachers, administrators, enterprises, parents, and other stakeholders to formulate differentiated growth goals and training strategies for students at different growth stages under the guidance of the path, so as to promote the adaptability of vocational college students against the background of digital transformation.
Cultivation of new professional farmers under the background of common prosperity: from the perspective of open education
Communication of Vocational Education,2022,No. 05
In China’s ongoing socialist exploration, the core goal is common prosperity. At present, we must clearly realize that in the process of realizing common prosperity, the most arduous and arduous task is still in the countryside. If farmers want to increase their income and improve their social status, they must be transformed into new professional farmers. At present, the mature system of cultivating new professional farmers in China has not really been established, and the mode and path of cultivating new professional farmers are not clear. Among them, the problems of why, who and how to train new professional farmers have not been solved. The existing literature on the cultivation of new professional farmers from the perspective of open education is very scarce, especially the in-depth research on the suitability and path exploration of cultivating new professional farmers through open education against the background of common prosperity. This paper mainly adopts the method of speculative research, through an in-depth analysis of common prosperity, discusses the internal logic of common prosperity, determines the basic foothold of cultivating new professional farmers, and clarifies the connotation and cultivation value of new professional farmers. From the perspective of open education, based on the advantages of open education in system linkage, flexible education and educational resources, this paper discusses the feasible path of open education in cultivating new professional farmers. Specifically, we should first pay more attention to it and promote the opening and innovation of educational concepts. Second, it is necessary to promote the landing and build an operational and easy-to-popularize school-running mode. Finally, based on practice, we should explore an appropriate and effective talent training mode. Compared with previous studies, this paper has expanded in the following two aspects. First, it discusses the important issues of why and who should cultivate new professional farmers in the process of common prosperity, clarifies the logical relationship between the cultivation of new professional farmers and the realization of common prosperity, and breaks through the limitations of the previous cultivation of new professional farmers in concept, subject and mode from the new perspective of open education. Second, from the aspect of what should be and what it is, this paper answers the question of how to cultivate new-type professional farmers, explores the feasible path of cultivating new-type professional farmers in open education, and puts forward the practical and operable practice mode, which is helpful to better promote the cultivation of new-type professional farmers. To some extent, the research of this paper reveals the internal logic of cultivating new professional farmers under the background of common prosperity, broadens the main body, path and mode of cultivating new professional farmers, and can provide policy support and inspiration for government departments to solve this arduous task in rural areas more pertinently in the process of realizing the goal of common prosperity. At the same time, it can also provide a certain theoretical reference for promoting open education to implement the cultivation of new professional farmers.
Learning community empowers higher vocational teachers to improve scientific research ability: value implication, internal mechanism and practice path
Communication of Vocational Education,2022,No. 05
Building a team of teachers with the exquisite ability and excellent quality is the core of the development of higher vocational colleges in the new era. Improving the scientific research ability of higher vocational teachers is an important measure to promote the construction of high-quality teachers. On the basis of analyzing the value implication and internal mechanism of the learning community empowering teachers’ scientific research ability in higher vocational colleges, higher vocational colleges should build a shared resource pool and create a shared collaborative learning platform; improve the symbiotic mechanism chain and optimize the collaborative learning ecology of cooperative dialogue; and create a cultural circle of common prosperity and a harmonious and symbiotic learning culture atmosphere. Based on literature research, investigation and other methods, this paper expounds that the key factors to improve teachers’ scientific research ability in higher vocational colleges are to have strong learning efficiency, rich theoretical foundation, scientific research methods and a good cultural atmosphere, and puts forward that learning community, as an organizational form, has rich value implication in improving teachers’ scientific research ability, which is embodied in that learning community can effectively enhance teachers’ learning efficiency, consolidate teachers’ theoretical foundation and realize teachers’ individual growth. Based on this, individual teachers can realize their own scientific research growth through the following roles and processes in the learning community, that is, actively integrating into the learning mode such as modularization and project in the early stage of entering the community, striving to develop themselves and enrich themselves by watching, actively demonstrating their achievements in the middle stage by combining daily summary, weekly summary and seeking peer help, accepting the judgment, giving full play to their strengths and weaknesses, and forming a demonstration with the help of partners. At the later stage, teachers should combine the existing practice and exploration, give full play to the leading role of new members, continuously sublimate our own identity in relevant practical activities, ane strive to become the chief in equality. In addition, with the advantages of rich interdisciplinary resources, harmonious and relaxed organizational learning atmosphere, diversified independent and cooperative learning methods, the learning community can create superior conditions for teachers’ scientific research ability improvement in terms of resource sharing, mechanism symbiosis and cultural co-prosperity. On the basis of giving full play to this organizational advantage, higher vocational colleges can help build a learning community of teachers’ scientific research ability by building a shared resource pool, perfecting a symbiosis mechanism chain and building a co-prosperity cultural circle. Compared with the previous research literature, the research in this paper has certain theoretical significance and practical value. First of all, on the theoretical level, it expands and enriches the theoretical horizon of improving teachers’ scientific research ability in higher vocational colleges, and explores the value implication of the learning community empowering higher vocational teachers’ scientific research ability. Second, on the level of practical value, it puts forward the path for teachers to improve their scientific research ability in the learning community, and the strategy for schools to help build a learning community of teachers’ scientific research ability.
The reform of vocational education types: a rational examination based on the relationship between general and vocational education
Communication of Vocational Education,2022,No. 05
Vocational education and general education are two different types of education, but they have the same important position. When discussing the reform of vocational education types, some studies have analyzed it from the aspects of the logical starting point and essential attributes of vocational education itself. However, the above analysis ideas only involve one aspect of typed reform, and cannot fully show the whole picture of the reform of vocational education types. Therefore, this paper introduces the perspective of the relationship between general and vocational education as an analytical context and thinking basis for discussing the reform of vocational education types. Starting from the relationship between general and vocational education, the concept of the reform of vocational education types should change from emphasizing the heterogeneity to promoting the diversification of general education and vocational education, pay attention to the common essence behind the diversification, and guard the educational nature of vocational education. In the direction, it is necessary to change from the road of differentiation of general education and vocational education to the road of specialization of general and vocational education, so as to avoid the type reform falling into the internal negativism trap and improve the purity and enrichment of the quality of vocational education. In terms of system, it is necessary to change the tendency from dual track to integration of general education and vocational education. Through a process integration mechanism for general and vocational education, vocational education can not only be free, but also highlight its type characteristics. Compared with the previous literature, this paper expands on the following two aspects. First, the relationship between general education and vocational education is taken as the basic perspective, context and basis for analyzing the reform of vocational education types. Second, based on the perspective of the relationship between general and vocational education, the concept of diversification, the road of specialization and the system of integration in the reform of vocational education types are proposed. To a certain extent, the research in this paper can avoid people’s narrow understanding of vocational education, the solidified understanding of general education, and the misunderstanding of the antagonism, differentiation and fragmentation between general and vocational education. At the same time, this paper’s views on the basic concepts, reform directions and system construction of reform of vocational education types can provide certain theoretical enlightenment and policy guidance for the reform of vocational education types in China.
Communication of Vocational Education,2022,No. 01
Developing vocational undergraduate education has been an important theme of vocational education reform in China since the new century. Although a consensus has been basically reached on the development of vocational undergraduate education in practice, there is still theoretical controversy on whether or not to develop vocational undergraduate education. Existing literature does not recognize the historical inevitability of developing vocational undergraduate education, but subconsciously regards vocational undergraduate education as an accidental product of the historical process, lacking systematic reflection on this issue. The development of vocational undergraduate education is a crucial step on the road to the modernization of vocational education in China, which has extremely important historical significance. Although it will encounter various setbacks in the process of development, history’s basic pattern of spiral rise will not be changed. Based on the above understanding, this paper attempts to examine the historical inevitability of developing vocational undergraduate education from a macro-history perspective and draws the following research findings. According to the long-term trend of vocational education in the world, vocational education gradually developed from secondary education to post-secondary education after the Second World War. Developing vocational undergraduate education is the key link to promoting the status of vocational education in China. From the perspective of the overall transformation of politics, economy, and society, the political aspect has changed from meeting the material and cultural needs to meeting the needs for a better life, the economic aspect has changed from the industrial economy to the industrial + digital economy, and the social aspect has changed from diploma society to diploma skills society, which provides a political, economic and social foundation for the development of vocational undergraduate education. From the perspective of the Eastern and Western national cultural traditions, there are differences between the doctrine of vocation and the concept that learning is the noblest of human pursuits, and between the organizational mode of association and the differential mode of association. Developing vocational undergraduate education has an extremely important cultural value under the Chinese national tradition. The important academic value of this paper lies in re-examining the important value of vocational undergraduate education from a macro-history perspective. Specifically, it is manifested in the following three aspects. First, this paper break through the limitation of the present circumstances, stretch the horizon of history, and examine the historical choice of developing vocational undergraduate education in the long history of world vocational education. Second, adhering to the viewpoint of universal connection of things, this paper broadens the horizon of history, puts the development of vocational undergraduate education in a broader context, and examines the position of an undergraduate diploma in political, economic, and social development from the perspective of the overall transformation of politics, economy, and society. Third, this paper follows the law of seeing the essence through phenomena, deepens the horizon of history, and finds the national cultural genes for developing vocational undergraduate education by deepening the understanding of the word “vocation.”
An empirical analysis of the impact of secondary vocational education investment on the development of tertiary industry: based on the national inter-provincial panel data from 2007 to 2019
Communication of Vocational Education,2022,No. 04
Industry cannot develop without human capital, which needs human capital accumulation to optimize industrial structure and promote industrial development. The skilled and innovative talents trained by vocational education can meet the demand of economic development for vocational and technical talents and boost the high-quality development of the industry. As an important part of China’s vocational education system, secondary vocational education is adapting to the development needs of economic transformation and upgrading, shifting from quantity priority to quality priority. Due to the development and acceleration of secondary vocational education, in the future, the emphasis on the quality of education and the investment in the number of funds will be even higher than in the previous period. However, existing studies mainly focus on the impact of secondary vocational education on economic growth with relatively old selected data samples, and there is a lack of research on specific industries, especially the tertiary industry. With the transformation and upgrading of the economic structure and the improvement of people’s living standards, the position and role of the tertiary industry are becoming more and more prominent, and the demand for high-quality technical talents is getting higher and higher. Then, what is the difference in the impacts of the quality investment and the quantity investment in secondary vocational education on the development of the tertiary industry, and what is the relationship between quality investment and quantity investment? Based on the national provincial panel data from 2007 to 2019, this paper comprehensively uses the panel two-way fixed effect model and the panel threshold model, divides the investment in secondary vocational education into two aspects: quality investment and quantity investment, focusing on their influence on the development of the tertiary industry and their regional heterogeneity, and discusses the relationship between the quality investment and the quantity investment in secondary vocational education and the influence of full-time teachers’ scale on the effectiveness of the quality investment and the quantity investment in secondary vocational education. This paper finds that the quality investment in secondary vocational education is more effective than the quantity investment in promoting the development of the tertiary industry, and the effect of the quality investment in secondary vocational education in the central region is stronger than that in the eastern and western regions. Compared with the eastern and central regions, the quantity investment in secondary vocational education in the western region has a more obvious inhibitory effect on the development of the tertiary industry. The investment in secondary vocational education funds is insufficient, and there is a threshold effect. The scale of full-time teachers is an important threshold for the quality investment and the quantity investment in secondary vocational education to affect the development of the tertiary industry. This paper identifies the structural changes of the quality investment and the quantity investment in secondary vocational education, and reveals that the effects of the quality investment and the quantity investment in secondary vocational education should pay attention to the difference between the improvement stage and the all-round development and improvement stage, the shortage of current education funds, and the importance of full-time teachers’ scale in promoting the development of the tertiary industry. It is suggested that relevant departments should strengthen the quality investment in secondary vocational education in the all-around development and improvement stage to ensure the quality of students’ obtaining academic and job qualification certificates. Efforts should be made to enhance the strength of full-time teachers, pay attention to the imbalance of regional development of education, increase the investment in education funds, and improve the quality of secondary vocational education, so as to promote the effectiveness of the quality investment and the quantity investment in secondary vocational education.