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试论植物园功能变迁与中国国家植物园体系建设

任海1 文香英1 廖景平1 郑祥慈1 杨明2 周桔2

(1.中国科学院华南植物园广东省应用植物学重点实验室, 广州 510650)
(2.中国科学院科技促进发展局生物技术处, 北京 100864)

【摘要】植物资源是自然生态系统的基本组成部分,是经济社会可持续发展的重要物质来源,植物多样性是关系到国家生态安全和生物安全的战略资源。就地保护和迁地保护是植物多样性保护的两种主要方法,构建以国家公园为主体的自然保护地体系是就地保护的主要形式,构建以国家植物园为引领的植物园体系是迁地保护的主要形式,二者相辅相成,共同形成我国较为完整的植物多样性保护体系。通过建设国家植物园体系对我国植物多样性进行迁地保护,同时开展科学研究、园林展示、科普教育和资源开发利用,对深入推进生态文明建设和高质量发展具有重要意义。本文回顾了植物园的功能变迁、全球和中国植物园分布与数量以及植物迁地保护现状,讨论了植物园与植物迁地保护的关系,在此基础上,提出了我国国家植物园的定义及设立标准,进而讨论了建设国家植物园体系的意义、挑战、统筹迁地保护和就地保护等问题,最后提出了我国国家植物园体系的建设目标、管理体制、空间布局和认证等方面的建议,以期为我国的国家植物园体系建设提供参考。

【关键词】 迁地保护;科学研究;科普教育;国家植物园;

【DOI】

The view on functional changes of botanical gardens and the establishment of China's national botanical garden system

Hai Ren1 Xiangying Wen1 Jingping Liao1 Xiangci Zheng1 Ming Yang2 Ju Zhou2

(1.Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Applied Botany, South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510650)
(2.Division of Biotechnology, Bureau of Science and Technology for Development, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100864)

【Abstract】 Background & Aims: Plant resources are the basic component of natural ecosystems and are crucial for sustainable economic and social development. They are also core resources related to national ecological security and biosafety. The conservation of plant diversity mainly includes in situ conservation and ex situ conservation. The establishment of a natural reserve system with national parks as the main body is the main form of in situ conservation. The development of a botanical garden system led by national botanical gardens is mainly for ex situ conservation. The two conservation strategies are indispensable and complementary. They jointly form a relatively complete plant biodiversity conservation system in China. The ex situ conservation of China's plant diversity through the establishment of a national botanical garden system can also facilitate scientific research, garden display, public education, as well as the utilization of plant resources. It is of great significance to further promote the construction of ecological civilization and high-quality economic development. Progress: This paper reviews the functional changes of botanical gardens and the current situation of ex situ conservation in botanical gardens around the world and in China. The botanical garden originated from the cultivation, research and experimental of medicinal plants, and has gone through the development stages of medicinal botanical gardens or university medicinal botanical gardens, tropical (colonial economy) botanical gardens, European classic botanical gardens, municipal botanical gardens and special types of botanical gardens (including agricultural botanical gardens, horticultural botanical gardens, germplasm collection gardens, etc.). At present, ex situ conservation of plant diversity and public education are the main functions of botanical gardens. There are more than 3,700 botanical gardens in the world, growing about 1/3 of the world's higher plants. China has 162 botanical gardens, with about 60% of the country's higher plants conserved. There are over 100 national botanical gardens in 43 countries and regions around the world. Conclusions&Suggestions: This paper discusses the relationship between botanical gardens and plant ex situ conservation. On this basis, we put forward the definition and setting standards of national botanical gardens, and then discusses the significance, challenges, coordinating ex situ conservation and in situ conservation of the national botanical garden system. Finally, suggestions on the establishment goals, management system, spatial layout and certification of China's national botanical garden system are proposed. We hope this paper would provide new insights into future development of the national botanical garden system in China.

【Keywords】 ex situ conservation; scientific research; public education; national botanical garden;

【DOI】

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ISSN:1005-0094

CN:11-3247/Q

Vol , No. 04, Pages 197-207

May 2022

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