Reconstruction of paleo-temperature and pressure of oil reservoirs based on PVTx simulation: problems, strategies and case studies

XI Binbin1,2,3 JIANG Hong1,2,3 XU Jin1,2,3 CHEN Qianglu1,2,3 YOU Donghua1,2,3

(1.SINOPEC Key Laboratory of Petroleum Accumulation Mechanisms, Wuxi, Jiangsu, China 214126)
(2.State Key Laboratory of Shale Oil and Gas Enrichment Mechanisms and Effective Development, Wuxi, Jiangsu, China 214126)
(3.Wuxi Research Institute of Petroleum Geology, SINOPEC, Wuxi, Jiangsu, China 214126)

【Abstract】The PVTx simulation of fluid inclusions is a valuable method for the reconstruction of paleo-temperature and pressure of oil reservoir. Since the accurate composition of oil-bearing inclusion is very difficult to be obtained and the composition may be altered during secondary alteration processes, it may cause uncorrected results. Compared to oil-bearing inclusion, the composition of accompanied aqueous inclusion is relatively simple and could hardly be affected during secondary alteration processions. As a result, accompanied aqueous inclusions were applied to reconstruct the paleo-temperature and pressure of well SN 1 in the South Shuntuoguole area of Tarim Basin. Gas-oil-bitumen bearing inclusions and aqueous inclusions are co-existed in calcite veins of well SN 1. The homogenization temperatures of aqueous inclusions were higher than 170 ℃, and the homogenization pressure of aqueous inclusions is significantly fluctuating from 39.1 MPa to over 165.8 MPa. The unusually high homogenization temperature of aqueous inclusions may be caused by hydrothermal fluid activity while the fluctuation of homogenization pressure of aqueous inclusions may be caused by oil cracking. The lowest homogenization pressure of aqueous inclusion was applied to determine the charge time of hydrothermal fluid, which is Hercynian. The charging time of hydrothermal fluid is in accordance with the active time of NE-trending strike-slip faults in the South Shuntuoguole area. Thus, the co-existing aqueous inclusions potentially can be applied to reconstruct the paleo-temperature and pressure of the oil reservoir to make up for the deficiency of present methods.

【Keywords】 CH4-bearing aqueous inclusion; paleo-temperature; paleo-pressure; PVTx simulation; South Shuntuoguole area; Tarim Basin;


【Funds】 National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) (U19B6003) Sinopec Basic Forward-Looking Project (JC-2020-KT002-3)

Download this article


    [1] APLIN A C,MACLEOD G,LARTER S R,et al.Combined use of confocal laser scanning microscopy and PVT simulation for estimating the composition and physical properties of petroleum in fluid inclusions[J].Marine and Petroleum Geology,1999,16(2):97-110.

    [2] THIÉRY R,PIRONON J,WALGENWITZ F,et al.PIT (Petroleum Inclusion Thermodynamic):a new modeling tool for the characterization of hydrocarbon fluid inclusions from volumetric and microthermometric measurements[J].Journal of Geoche-mical Exploration,2000(69-70):701-704.

    [3]LIU Dehan,GONG Se,LIU Dongying,et al.Investigation on the phases of organic inclusion from Gourong-Huangqiao region,Jiangsu Province,and its trapped temperature & pressure calculated by PVTsim modeling[J].Acta Petrologica Sinica,2005,21(5):1435-1448.

    [4]ZHANG Junwu,ZOU Huayao,LI Pingping,et al.A new PVT simulation method for hydrocarbon-containing inclusions and its application to reconstructing paleo-pressure of gas reservoirs[J].Petroleum Geology & Experiment,2015,37(1):102-108.

    [5]ZHANG Xin,CHEN Honghan,KONG Lingtao,et al.The coupling relationship between paleofluid pressure evolution and hydrocarbon-charging events in the deep of Biyang Depression,central China[J].Earth Science,2020,45(5):1769-1781.

    [6]MI Jingkui,XIAO Xianming,LIU Dehan,et al.Calculation to trapping pressure of inclusions occurring in Upper Paleozoic sandstone reservoir from the Ordos Basin using PVTsim method[J].Science in China(Series D:Earth Science),2003,33(7):679-685.

    [7]HU Zhongliang,XIAO Xianming,HUANG Baojia.Acquirement of fluid inclusion paleo-pressure and it relation to reservoiring:taking Ya 21-1 structure in Qiongdongnan Basin as an example[J].Natural Gas Industry,2005,25(6):28-31.

    [8]SHI Weijun,JIANG Hong,XI Binbin.Application of the PVTx simulation of reservoir fluid inclusions to estimate petroleum charge stages:a case study in the Tuoputai area of Tarim Basin[J].Geological Journal of China Universities,2012,18(1):125-132.

    [9]WANG Feiyu,FENG Weiping,GUAN Jing,et al.Key questions of the fluid inclusion analysis in petroliferous basins and their significances[J].Bulletin of Mineralogy,Petrology and Geochemistry,2018,37(3):441-450.

    [10] THIÉRY R,PIRONON J,WALGENWITZ F,et al.Individual characterization of petroleum fluid inclusions (composition and P-T trapping conditions) by microthermometry and confocal laser scanning microscopy:inferences from applied thermodynamics of oils[J].Marine and Petroleum Geology,2002,19(7):847-859.

    [11] APLIN A C,LARTER S R,BIGGE M A,et al.PVTx history of the North Sea’s Judy oilfield[J].Journal of Geochemical Exploration,2000,69-70:641-644.

    [12] PIRONON J,BOURDET J.Petroleum and aqueous inclusions from deeply buried reservoirs:experimental simulations and consequences for overpressure estimates[J].Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta,2008,72(20):4916-4928.

    [13] TSENG H Y,POTTORF R J.Fluid inclusion constraints on petroleum PVT and compositional history of the Greater Alwyn-South Brent petroleum system,northern North Sea[J].Marine and Petroleum Geology,2002,19(7):797-809.

    [14] TSENG H Y,POTTORF R J.The application of fluid inclusion PVT analysis to studies of petroleum migration and reservoirs[J].Journal of Geochemical Exploration,2003,78-79:433-436.

    [15]PAN Liyin,NI Pei,OU Guangxi,et al.Application of organic inclusion study in petroleum geology:conception,classification,formation mechanism and significance[J].Bulletin of Mineralogy,Petrology and Geochemistry,2006,25(1):19-28.

    [16]CHEN Qianglu,XI Binbin,HAN Jun,et al.Preservation and influence factors of ultra-deep oil reservoirs in Shuntuoguole area,Tarim Basin:evidence from fluid inclusions[J].China Petroleum Exploration,2020,25(3):121-133.

    [17] DUBESSY J,BUSCHAERT S,LAMB W,et al.Methane-bearing aqueous fluid inclusions:Raman analysis,thermodynamic model-ling and application to petroleum basins[J].Chemical Geology,2001,173(1/3):193-205.

    [18] GUILLAUME D,TEINTURIER S,DUBESSY J,et al.Calibration of methane analysis by Raman spectroscopy in H2O-NaCl-CH4 fluid inclusions[J].Chemical Geology,2003,194(1/3):41-49.

    [19] QIU Ye,WANG Xiaolin,LIU Xian,et al.In situ Raman spectroscopic quantification of CH4-CO2 mixture:application to fluid inclusions hosted in quartz veins from the Longmaxi Formation shales in Sichuan Basin,southwestern China[J].Petroleum Science,2020,17(1):23-35.

    [20]XI Binbin,SHEN Baojian,JIANG Hong,et al.The trapping temperature and pressure of CH4-H2O-NaCl immiscible fluid inclusions and its application in natural gas reservoir[J].Natural Gas Geoscience,2020,31(7):923-930.

    [21] FALL A,EICHHUBL P,CUMELLA S P,et al.Testing the basin-centered gas accumulation model using fluid inclusion observations:southern Piceance Basin,Colorado[J].AAPG Bulletin,2012,96(12):2297-2318.

    [22] FALL A,EICHHUBL P,BODNAR R J,et al.Natural hydraulic fracturing of tight-gas sandstone reservoirs,Piceance Basin,Colorado[J].Geological Society of America Bulletin,2015,127(1/2):61-75.

    [23] FALL A,BODNAR R J.How precisely can the temperature of a fluid event be constrained using fluid inclusions?[J].Economic Geology,2018,113(8):1817-1843.

    [24]SHI Weijun,XI Binbin.Calculation of paleo-pressure in gas reservoirs using fluid inclusions[J].Petroleum Geology & Experiment,2016,38(1):128-134.

    [25] LIU D H,XIAO X M,MI J K,et al.Determination of trapping pressure and temperature of petroleum inclusions using PVT simulation software:a case study of Lower Ordovician carbonates from the Lunnan Low Uplift,Tarim Basin[J].Marine and Petroleum Geology,2003,20(1):29-43.

    [26] PIRONON J.Fluid inclusions in petroleum environments:analytical procedure for PTX reconstruction[J].Acta Petrologica Sinica,2004,20(6):1333-1342.

    [27]GAO Jinghan,CHEN Yong,XU Xingyou,et al.Error correction of vapour/liquid ratio of hydrocarbon inclusions measured by confocal laser scanning microscope[J].Rock and Mineral Analysis,2015,34(5):558-564.

    [28] TEINTURIER S,PIRONON J.Experimental growth of quartz in petroleum environment.Part Ⅰ:Procedures and fluid trapping[J].Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta,2004,68(11):2495-2507.

    [29] PIRONON J,THIÉRY R,TEINTURIER S,et al.Water in petroleum inclusions:evidence from Raman and FT-IR measurements,PVT consequences[J].Journal of Geochemical Exploration,2000,69-70:663-668.

    [30] MAO Shide,HU Jiawen,ZHANG Dehui,et al.Thermodynamic modeling of ternary CH4-H2O-NaCl fluid inclusions[J].Chemical Geology,2013,335:128-135.

    [31]ZHANG Juan,ZHANG Jiali,XI Binbin,et al.Development of PVTx calculation software for CH4-H2O-NaCl system in fluid inclusions based on Microsoft Foundation Class (MFC) program frame[J].Petroleum Geology & Experiment,2014,36(3):385-390.

    [32] DUAN Zhenhao,MAO Shide.A thermodynamic model for calculating methane solubility,density and gas phase composition of methane-bearing aqueous fluids from 273 to 523 K and from 1 to 2000 bar[J].Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta,2006,70(13):3369-3386.

    [33]GU Rong,YUN Lu,ZHU Xiuxiang,et al.Oil and gas sources in Shunbei Oilfield,Tarim Basin[J].Petroleum Geology & Experiment,2020,42(2):248-254.

    [34]JIAO Fangzheng.Significance and prospect of ultra-deep carbonate fault-karst reservoirs in Shunbei area,Tarim Basin[J].Oil & Gas Geology,2018,39(2):207-216.

    [35]LI Meng,TANG Liangjie,LI Zongjie,et al.Fault characteristics and their petroleum geology significance:a case study of well Shun-1 on the northern slope of the central Tarim Basin[J].Petroleum Geology & Experiment,2016,38(1):113-121.

    [36]WANG Tieguan,SONG Daofu,LI Meijun,et al.Natural gas source and deep gas exploration potential of the Ordovician Yingshan Formation in the Shunnan-Gucheng region,Tarim Basin[J].Oil & Gas Geology,2014,35(6):753-762.

    [37]MA Anlai,JIN Zhijun,ZHU Cuishan.Detection and research significance of thiadiamondoids from crude oil in well Shunnan 1,Tarim Basin[J].Acta Petrolei Sinica,2018,39(1):42-53.

    [38] LU Ziye,CHEN Honghan,QING Hairuo,et al.Petrography,fluid inclusion and isotope studies in Ordovician carbonate reservoirs in the Shunnan area,Tarim Basin,NW China:implications for the nature and timing of silicification[J].Sedimentary Geology,2017,359:29-43.

    [39] YOU Donghua,HAN Jun,HU Wenxuan,et al.Characteristics and formation mechanisms of silicified carbonate reservoirs in well SN4 of the Tarim Basin[J].Energy Exploration & Exploitation,2018,36(4):820-849.

    [40] DONG Shaofeng,YOU Donghua,GUO Zenghui,et al.Intense silicification of Ordovician carbonates in the Tarim Basin:constraints from fluid inclusion Rb-Sr isotope dating and geochemistry of quartz[J].Terra Nova,2018,30(6):406-413.

    [41]LIU Dehan,XIAO Xianming,TIAN Hui,et al.Sample maturation calculated using Raman spectroscopic parameters for solid organics:methodology and geological applications[J].Chinese Science Bulletin,2013,58(13):1228-1241.

    [42]FANG Chenchen,XIONG Yongqiang,LI Yun,et al.Raman spectra characteristics of solid bitumens generated during oil cracking[J].Geochimica,2015,44(2):196-204.

    [43]WANG Maolin,XIAO Xianming,WEI Qiang,et al.Thermal maturation of solid bitumen in shale as revealed by Raman spectroscopy[J].Natural Gas Geoscience,2015,26(9):1712-1718.

    [44]XI Binbin,TENGER,YU Lingjie,et al.Trapping pressure of fluid inclusions and its significance in shale gas reservoirs,southeastern Sichuan Basin[J].Petroleum Geology & Experiment,2016,38(4):473-479.

    [45] BURLINSON K.Decrepitation in gold exploration.A case history from the Cotan prospect,N.T.[J].Journal of Geochemical Exploration,1991,42(1):143-156.

    [46]XU Wengang,ZHANG Dehui,XI Binbin,et al.Discussions on reliability of the decrepitation technique applied in fluid inclusion studies:taking the Jiangxi Dajishan Tungsten deposit as an example[J].Geoscience,2008,22(5):757-765.

    [47] GOLDSTEIN R H,REYNOLDS T J.Systematics of fluid inclusions in diagenetic minerals[M].Society for Sedimentary Geo-logy,1994:1-198.

    [48] CHI Guoxiang,DIAMOND L W,LU Huanzhang,et al.Common problems and pitfalls in fluid inclusion study:a review and discussion[J].Minerals,2021,11(1):7.

    [49]LIU Wen,QIU Nansheng,XU Qiuchen,et al.The quantitative evaluation of the pressurization caused by hydrocarbon generation in the Cambrian Qiongzhusi Formation of the Gaoshiti-Moxi area,Sichuan Basin[J].Petroleum Science Bulletin,2018,3(3):262-271.

    [50]HUANG Taizhu.Structural interpretation and petroleum exploration targets in northern slope of middle Tarim Basin[J].Petroleum Geology & Experiment,2014,36(3):257-267.

    [51]DENG Shang,LI Huili,ZHANG Zhongpei,et al.Characteristics of differential activities in major strike-slip fault zones and their control on hydrocarbon enrichment in Shunbei area and its surroundings,Tarim Basin[J].Oil & Gas Geology,2018,39(5):878-888.

    [52]DENG Shang,LI Huili,HAN Jun,et al.Characteristics of the central segment of Shunbei 5 strike-slip fault zone in Tarim Basin and its geological significance[J].Oil & Gas Geology,2019,40(5):990-998.

    [53]QI Lixin,YUN Lu.Carbonate reservoir forming model and exploration in Tarim Basin[J].Petroleum Geology & Experiment,2020,42(5):867-876.

    [54]WU Xian,CAO Zicheng,LU Qinghua,et al.Genetic types and sources of Cretaceous crude oil in Shunbei area,Tarim Basin[J].Petroleum Geology & Experiment,2020,42(2):255-262.

    [55]GU Yi,HUANG Jiwen,JIA Cunshan,et al.Research progress on marine oil and gas accumulation in Tarim Basin[J].Petroleum Geology & Experiment,2020,42(1):1-12.

    [56]GU Yi,WAN Yanglu,HUANG Jiwen,et al.Prospects for ultra-deep oil and gas in the “deep burial and high pressure” Tarim Basin[J].Petroleum Geology & Experiment,2019,41(2):157-164.

This Article



Vol 43, No. 05, Pages 886-895

September 2021


Article Outline


  • 1 Principle and calculation steps
  • 2 Existing issues
  • 3 Countermeasures for restoration of reservoir paleo-temperature and pressure
  • 4 Application cases
  • 5 Conclusions
  • References