Intelligent sports in China: rise, development and measures
(2.School of Juris Master, China University of Political Science and Law, Beijing, China 100089)
【Abstract】This paper reviews the development of intelligent sports, explores the law of development, and puts forward the path of future development through literature review, logical analysis and empirical research. The integration of sports informatization and sports industrialization cannot be achieved without intelligent sports. The key point is to mine valuable information by using deep-learning algorithm based on sports big data and to transform the sports industry intelligently. Compared with traditional sports, intelligent sports are digital, entertaining and convenient. China’s intelligent sports started in the 1990s, which originated from the breakthrough of big data, algorithms and computing power, as well as the expansion of China’s sports business and market demand. At present, intelligent sports have been continuously promoted in competitive sports, and gradually spread in national fitness, with the function of improving the level of professional sports and facilitating the public fitness. But now, China’s intelligent sports remain in the initial stage of development. The sports database based on intelligent sports technology has not really formed, the consumption demand for intelligent sports has not really opened, and the regulatory system of intelligent sports has yet to be established. At the industrial level, intelligent sports industry is dominated by small and micro enterprises, and the industrial development is unbalanced. In order to promote the further development of intelligent sports, from the perspective of policy, we need to introduce macro encouraging policies and establish supporting regulatory system; from the technical point of view, we need to build an interconnected sports big data platform to solve negative problems through technical solutions; and from the perspective of market, we need to optimize the industrial structure and promote sports consumption.
【Keywords】 intelligent sports; competitive sports; national fitness; sports big data;
(Translated by MO Yingqi)
. ① The data are from the survey conducted by the author in December 2018 as part of the research project entitled “Intelligent sports: basic theories, status quo, trends in development and countermeasures” supported by the General Administration of Sport of China.
Cai, W. Sport (运动), (17): 149–150 (2013).
Chen, Z. Journal of Shanghai Jiaotong University (Philosophy and Social Sciences) (上海交通大学学报(哲学社会科学版)), 22(1): 85–92 (2014).
Ding, X. Peking University Law Journal (中外法学), (6): 1609–1623 (2017).
Jia, B., Yang, Z. & Yao, J. China Sport Science and Technology (中国体育科技), 54(6): 118–126 (2018).
Jiang, X. China Sport Science (体育科学), 39(7): 1–10 (2019).
Li, X. & Liu, Y. Hubei Sports Science (湖北体育科技), 35(9): 778–780 (2016).
Liu, H. Journal of Beijing Sport University (北京体育大学学报), 41(4): 55–60 (2018).
Liu, Q. & Shi, Q. Big Data Research (大数据), (2): 24–30 (2016).
Liu, Z. Sports Culture Guide (体育文化导刊), (3): 149–153 (2018).
Qiu, H. China Sport Science and Technology (中国体育科技), 53(4): 138–145 (2017).
Qu, D. Sports Culture Guide (体育文化导刊), (6): 104–108 (2016).
Shao, G., Sun, Q., Man, J. et al. in Proceedings of the 5th National Convention on Sports Science of China (1997).
Su, Z. Liaoning Sport Science and Technology (辽宁体育科技), 37(3): 115–116 (2015).
Tencent Research Institute. 人工智能. Beijing: China Renmin University Press, (2017).
Tu, Z. The Big Data Revolution (大数据). Guilin: Guangxi Normal University Press (Group), (2015).
Wang, S. Journal of Shanghai University of Sport (上海体育学院学报), 42(4): 56–61 (2018).
Wen, L. China Sport Science and Technology (中国体育科技), 35(7): 45–50 (1999).
Wen, X., Yuan, B., Li, H. et al. China Sport Science and Technology (中国体育科技), 53(2): 80–87 (2017).
Wu, J. 智能时代. Beijing: CITIC Press Group, (2016).
Xu, W. & Zheng, F. Zhejiang Sport Science (浙江体育科学), 38(4): 14–17 (2016).
Xu, W. & Zheng, F. Journal of Tianjin University of Sport (天津体育学院学报), (5): 456–460 (2019).
Yang, C. China Sport Science (体育科学), 38(4): 82–90 (2018).
Yao, J. China Sport Science and Technology (中国体育科技), 54(1): 49–56, 114 (2018).
Yao, H. Introduction to Big Data and Artificial Intelligence (大数据与人工智能导论). Beijing: Posts & Telecom Press Co., LTD, (2017).
Ye, Q. & Wei, N. Journal of Nanjing Institute of Physical Education: Natural Science (南京体育学院学报:自然科学版), 10(5): 117–119 (2011).
Zhang, R. Shandong Sport Science & Technology (山东体育科技), 20(3): 78–81 (1998).
Zhang, W. Journal of Chifeng University (Natural Science Edition) (赤峰学院学报(自然科学版)), 30(6): 139–140 (2014).
Zhang, Y. & Ping, J. China Sport Science and Technology (中国体育科技), 53(6): 54–64 (2017).
Research Group for Strategic Research on Artificial Intelligence 2.0 in China. Strategic Research on Artificial Intelligence 2.0 in China (中国人工智能2.0发展战略研究). Hangzhou: Zhejiang University Press, (2018).
Zhong, Y. Pattern Recognition and Artificial Intelligence (模式识别和人工智能), 25(3): 456–461 (2012).
ALBU A, STANCIU L, 2016. Benefits of using artificial intelligence in medical predictions//E-health & Bioengineering Conference. New York: IEEE.
GALILY Y, 2018. Artificial intelligence and sports journalism: Is it a sweeping change?. Technol Soc, (8): 32–39.
LAI, CHUN, 2014. The application of computer aided technology in the sport training (CAS). Appl Mech Mater, 644–650: 5753–5755.
LAPHAM A C, 1995. “The use of artificial intelligence in the analysis of sports performance: A review of applications in human gait analysis and future directions for sports biomechanics”. J Sports Sci, (13): 229–237.
MCCABE A, 2002. An Artificially Intelligent Sports Tipper//AI 2002: Advances in Artificial Intelligence. Berlin: Springer Berlin Heidelberg.
MCCABE A, TREVATHAN J, 2008. Artificial Intelligence in Sports Prediction//International Conference on Information Technology: New Generations. Las Vegas, NV: DBLP.
PARDAU S L, EDWARDS B, 2017. “The FTC, the unfairness doctrine, and privacy by design: New legal frontiers in cybersecurity.” J business technol law, 12(2): 227–276.
PRETORIUS A, PARRY D A, 2016. Human Decision Making and Artificial Intelligence: A Comparison in the Domain of Sports Prediction//The Annual Conference of the South African Institute of Computer Scientists and Information Technologists. Cape Town: South African Institute of Computer Scientists and Information Technologists.
REED D, PETER O’ DONOGHUE, 2005. Development and application of computer-based prediction methods. Int J Perf Anal Sport, 5(3): 12–28.
RUSSELL S J, NORVIG P, 2010. Artificial intelligence: A modern approach. Appl Mech Mater, 263(5): 2829–2833.
SCHERER M U, 2016. Regulating Artificial Intelligence systems: Risks, challenges, competencies, and strategies. Harvard J Law Technol, 29(2): 355–357.
TRAWINSKI K, 2010. A fuzzy classification system for prediction of the results of the basketball games//IEEE International Conference on Fuzzy Systems. New York: IEEE.
VERLIC M, ZORMAN M, MERTIK M, 2005. i APERAS-Intelligent Athletes Personal Assistant//IEEE Symposium on Computer-based Medical Systems. New York: IEEE Computer Society.
YU Y, GAO P, 2010. Application of computer-aided intelligent training in sports control. Adv Mater Res, (4): 171–172.