Current status and influencing factors of broken rate in mechanical grain harvesting of maize in Southwest China

ZHAO Bo1 LI Xiao-Long1 ZHOU Mao-Lin2 SONG Bi3 LEI En4 LI Zhong5 WU Ya-Wei1 YUAN Ji-Chao1 KONG Fan-Lei1

(1.College of Agronomy, Sichuan Agricultural University/Crop Ecophysiology and Cultivation Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Chengdu, Sichuan 611130)
(2.Corn Research Institute, Chongqing Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Chongqing 401329)
(3.College of Agronomy, Guizhou Agricultural University, Guiyang, Guizhou 550025)
(4.Honghe University, Honghe, Yunnan 661106)
(5.Nanchong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Nanchong, Sichuan 637000)

【Abstract】Maize mechanical grain harvesting is the development direction of maize production in Southwest China. High grain broken rate is the main limiting factor for the development and application of this technology. It is of great significance to clarify the current status of broken rate of mechanical grain harvesting in Southwest China for the study of the main influencing factors, so as to promote the development of mechanical grain harvesting in Southwest China. With 788 sets of sample data of grain broken rate obtained from a series of multi-point and multi-cultivar grain harvesting experiments conducted in Southwest China from 2017 to 2018, the present situation of mechanical grain broken rate in Southwest China was analyzed. In 2018, the same machine and operator were used to carry out multi-cultivar, long-span and multi-harvest experiments to investigate the changes of grain broken rate, grain moisture content, and grain mechanical strength in different harvest periods, and to analyze the relationship among grain moisture content, grain mechanical strength, and broken rate. The broken rate of mechanically-harvested grains was 0.54%–42.72% with the average of 8.34% in Southwest China. With the delayed mechanical grain harvesting, the moisture content of grains decreased; the crushing strength of grains increased and the broken rate of grains decreased first and then increased. The relationship between broken rate (y) and grain moisture content (x) was in accordance with the equation y = 0.032 9x2 − 1.332 8x + 15.529 (R2 = 0.546 7**). The broken rate was the lowest when the moisture content of grains was 20.26%. The range of moisture content of the grains with a broken rate less than 5% was 10.76%–29.76%. The relationship between broken rate (y) and crushing strength of grain facade (xfacade) and side (xside) was in accordance with the equations of y = 0.000 6x2facade − 0.269 2xfacade+ 32.703 0 (R2 = 0.313 8**) and y = 0. 002 1x2side − 0.609 2xside + 46.979 (R2 = 0.379 0**), respectively. When the crushing strength of grain facade and side was 224.33 N and 145.05 N, respectively, the broken rate was the lowest. With delay of harvest, the change of mechanical strength caused by the decrease of grain moisture content may be the main reason affecting the change of broken rate. Breeding and selecting cultivars with strong standing pole ability and quick dehydration and making the moisture content of grain below 28% are important measures to reduce the broken rate of mechanically-harvested grains in Southwest China.

【Keywords】 southwest maize; mechanical grain harvesting; broken rate; moisture content; mechanical strength;

【DOI】

【Funds】 National Key Research and Development Program of China (2016YFD0300307, 2017YFD0301704).

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This Article

ISSN:0496-3490

CN:11-1809/S

Vol 46, No. 01, Pages 74-83

January 2020

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Article Outline

Abstract

  • 1 Materials and methods
  • 2 Results and analysis
  • 3 Discussion
  • 4 Conclusions
  • References