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中国情境下公共服务动机的理论构建与绩效转换机制

文博1 陶磊2

(1.香港城市大学深圳研究院, 深圳 518000)
(2.香港城市大学公共政策系, 香港 999077)

【摘要】准确把握基层公职人员的公共服务动机是提升工作绩效、完善人力资源管理的重要前提。现有公共服务动机研究忽略了中国情景的特殊性,对公共服务动机的微观激发机制及其消极绩效影响也关注不足。本研究从中国情景下公共服务动机的概念、核心构成要素、激发机制以及绩效结果入手,从三个方面系统地构建适合中国场景的公共服务动机理论:第一,将公共服务动机视为混合动机概念,基于扎根理论的定性方式识别基层公务员公共服务动机的构成要素与核心内涵,并据此开发本土化、多维度的公共服务动机量表;第二,从微观激发机制出发,探讨受益人接触、自我倡议、观念反思等机制对个体公共服务动机的激发作用;第三,从积极影响和消极影响两个方面探讨公共服务动机与个体公务员行为间的关联及其机理。本研究既响应了国内公共管理学界长期以来发展本土理论的呼声,亦为政府部门完善公共人事政策提供切实思路和实证依据。

【关键词】 中国情境;公共服务动机;核心内涵;测量工具;绩效转换;

【DOI】

Public service motivation in the Chinese context: theory construction and workplace consequences

WEN Bo1 TAO Lei2

(1.Shenzhen Research Institute, City University of Hong Kong , Shenzhen 518000)
(2.Department of Public Policy, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong 999077)

【Abstract】Clarifying the conceptualization, measurement properties, and performance-related effects of public service motivation (PSM) in the Chinese context is an essential prerequisite to helping China establish a committed public workforce and improve its public management strategies for personnel. Previous research on PSM, albeit copious, has overlooked a massive conceptual divergence between Chinese and Western contexts and therefore undermines its applicability in cross-cultural environments. In addition, our knowledge of how to inspire PSM in employees and its negative performance impacts remains limited. Hence, the purpose of this research is to develop an integrated PSM theory within the Chinese context by investigating its core components, activation mechanisms, and associated outcomes in the workplace. To begin with, we propose that PSM in the Chinese context ought to include three essential components: instrumental, norm-based, and affective motivations. Specifically, the first is the scaffolding that comprises individuals’ self-interested reasons for seeking employment in the public sector. It encompasses two subdimensions: political efficacy and an attachment to the governance regime. The former can be characterized as aspirations or predilections towards becoming high-ranking politicians whereas the latter epitomizes allegiance to the system under which one lives and functions. The second is norm-based motives that emphasize the socialized influence of public organizations on civil servants. In China, the leadership of the Communist Party of China, democratic centralism, a focus on the big picture, and the preeminence of the government constitute the primary public values that are firmly held by civil servants. Affective motivation denotes one’s impetus for reflecting on one’s family and social identity. Under collectivism and Confucianism, bringing glory to one’s family or ancestors as well as patriotic self-sacrifice are two crucial aspects of civil servants’ affective motivations. Based on the abovementioned conceptualization, in this study, PSM is conceived as a mixed-motives construct. By virtue of a grounded theory approach primarily consisting of semi-structured interviews and observational fieldwork, we will further identify and refine the core and substantive components of PSM held by front-line public employees, thus laying a solid groundwork for the subsequent development of a PSM measurement scale that is highly relevant to the Chinese context. Then, through the lens of micro-interventions, we will draw on self-efficacy and predisposition-opportunity theories to design a series of behavioral experiments to examine whether and the extent to which beneficiary contacts, self-advocacy, and idea reflections activate PSM among Chinese public sector workers. Finally, we will rely on psychological contract and moral disengagement theories to investigate the underlying mechanisms of both the desirable and undesirable effects of PSM on the attitudes and behaviors of public sector employees. In sum, by developing a localized PSM quantification tool with specific consideration for the Chinese cultural, bureaucratic, and social reality, analyzing the micro-activation mechanisms of PSM, and exploring the mixed effects of PSM on organizational performance at the individual level, this study strives to comprehensively extend the existing PSM literature in the Chinese context. Findings stemming from this study will not only fill an enduring scholarly need for the establishment of locally-adaptive PSM theories but also generate ample evidence-based policy implications regarding the approaches to increase the work motivation and job performance of Chinese public employees.

【Keywords】 Chinese context; public service motivation; conceptualization; measurement scale; workplace consequences;

【DOI】

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ISSN:1671-3710

CN:11-4766/R

Vol , No. 02, Pages 239-254

December 2021

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