Carbon compositions and VOCs emission characteristics of civil combustion fuels

LIU Ya-nan1 ZHONG Lian-hong2 YAN Jing2 HAN Li-hui1 XUE Chen-li3

(1.Key Laboratory of Beijing on Regional Air Pollution Control, College of Environmental and Energy Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing, China 100124)
(2.Beijing Municipal Research Institute of Environmental Protection, Beijing, China 100037)
(3.College of Resource Environment and Tourism, Capital Normal University, Beijing, China 100048)

【Abstract】The typical biomass fuels in Beijing (made of corn cob, corn stalks, soybean stalks, straw stalks, pine, chestnut branches, peach branches) and civil coal (bituminous coal, honeycomb coal) were selected and combustion experiments were simulated in the laboratory. After collecting particulate matters and gas samples from combustion, organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) in different particle size fractions of particulate matter were measured by Model 2001A Thermal/Photocarbon Analyzer, and the VOCs in combustion flue gas were analyzed with Agilent GC-MS 5977/7890B GC-MS as well. The results showed that for honeycomb coal, the emission factor of OC and EC reached the maximum with the particle size of 2.5–10 μm; for the other 8 solid fuels, the emission factors of OC and EC were maximum with the particle size of 0–2.5 μm. The composition of VOCs from the combustion of these three types of fuels, firewood (chestnut branches, peach branches and pine), straw (corn cob, corn stalks, soybean stalks, straw stalks) and civil coal (honeycomb and bituminous coal), were quite different. The mass fractions of halogenated hydrocarbons and oxygenated organic matter emitted from firewood and civil coal combustion were significantly higher than that from straw type fuels. Within each fuel, VOCs composition was relatively similar. The average total VOCs emission factor was 2.02 g/kg for the firewood type, 6.89 g/kg for the straws, and 2.03 g/kg for the civil coals. VOCs from corn cob, corn stalk, soybean and straw stem have higher ozone formation potential than that from chestnut, peach, pine, bituminous and honeycomb coals. Nonetheless, the composition was similar among the latter group. The VOCs, such as alkenes, alkanes and aromatic hydrocarbons from solid fuel combustion, were big contributors to the ozone formation potential.

【Keywords】 organic carbon (OC) ; elemental carbon (EC) ; volatile organic compounds (VOCs) ; emission factor; ozone formation potential;

【DOI】

【Funds】 National Key R&D Program of China (2017YFC0211404)

Download this article

    References

    [1] Tian H Z, Zhao D, Wang Y. Emission inventories of atmospheric pollutants discharged from biomass burning in China [J]. Acta Scientiae Circumstantiae, 2011, 31 (2): 349–357 (in Chinese).

    [2] Zhang Y S, Zhang H Y, Luan S J, et al. Emission characteristics of PAHs from open and residential biomass burning [J]. China Environmental Science, 2015, 35 (2): 387–395 (in Chinese).

    [3] Li Y T, Wang Z S, An X X, et al. Analysis on a heavy air pollution process in Beijing during National Day holiday, 2015 [J]. China Environmental Science, 2016, 36 (11): 3218–3226 (in Chinese).

    [4] Shen X Y, Guo Z B, Jiang W J, et al. Carbon characteristics and elemental carbon isotopic compositions in biomass indoor combustion products [J]. China Environmental Science, 2017, 37 (10): 3669–3674 (in Chinese).

    [5] Liu H L, Peng L, Zhang T, et al. Distribution of carbon components and water-soluble inorganic ions in biomass burning dust [J]. Chinese Journal of Environmental Engineering, 2017, 3 (11): 1672–1676 (in Chinese).

    [6] Wei W, Wang SX, Chatani S, et al. Emission and speciation of nonmethane volatile organic compounds from anthropogenic sources in China [J]. Atmospheric Environment 2008, 42 (20): 4976–4988.

    [7] DB 11/097-2014 Low sulfur coal and its products [S] (in Chinese).

    [8] Zhang Q, Li Q, Jiang J K, et al. A measurement system to characterize air pollutant emissions from residential solid fuel combustion [J]. Acta Scientiae Circumstantiae, 2016, 36 (9): 3393–3399 (in Chinese).

    [9] Liu Y, Zhang Y X, Wei Y J, et al. Measurement of emission factors of carbonaceous aerosols from residential coal combustion [J]. Acta Scientiae Circumstantiae, 2007, 27 (9): 1409–1416 (in Chinese).

    [10] Barletta B, Meinardi S, Sherwood Rowland F, et al. Volatile organic compounds in 43 Chinese cities [J]. Atmospheric Environment, 2005, 39 (32): 5979–5990.

    [11] Liu Y, Shao M, Zhang J, et al. Distributions and source apportionment of ambient volatile organic compounds in Beijing City, China [J]. Journal of Environmental Science and Health (Part A), 2005, 40 (10): 1843–1860.

    [12] Fan Z W. Study on forms and emission characteristics of organic pollutants during coal combustion [D]. Hangzhou: Zhejiang University, 2005 (in Chinese).

    [13] Li X H, Wang S X, Hao J M. Characteristics of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) Emitted from Biofuel Combustion in China [J]. Environmental Science, 2011, 32 (12): 3515–3521.

    [14] Wang S X, Wei W, Du L, et al. Characteristics of gaseous pollutants from biofuel-stoves in rural China [J]. Atmospheric Environment, 2009, 43 (27): 4148–4154.

    [15] Carter, W P L. Development of ozone reactivity scales for volatile organic compounds [J]. Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association, 1994, 44: 881–899.

    [16] Hu G S, Xu Y F, Jia L. Smog Chamber Simulation of Atmospheric Photochemical Reactions of Propene and NOx [J]. Acta Chimica Sinica, 2011, 69 (14): 1593–1600 (in Chinese).

    [17] Su L Y, Zhao M, Li Y, et al. Progress in photochemistry of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in ambient air [J]. Journal of Green Science and Technology, 2013, 11: 178–182 (in Chinese).

This Article

ISSN:1000-6923

CN:11-2201/X

Vol 39, No. 04, Pages 1412-1418

April 2019

Downloads:2

Share
Article Outline

Abstract

  • 1 Materials and methods
  • 2 Results and discussion
  • 3 Conclusions
  • References