Yield Variation of Winter Wheat and Its Relationship to Yield Components, NPK Uptake and Utilization of Leading and High-yielding Wheat Cultivars in Main Wheat Production Regions of China
(2.Northwest A&F University/State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology in Arid Areas, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100)
【Abstract】[Objective] The aim of this study was to clarify wheat yield variation and its relationship to yield components and nutrient uptake and utilization for major high-yielding cultivars, so as to provide guidance to narrow yield gap and realize high yield and high quality in wheat production. [Method] Field experiments were conducted in 2016–2017 to test the major wheat cultivars in northern Huanghuai, southern Huanghuai, and the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River in China under local suitable cultivation conditions. The variation of yield and its relationship with dry matter accumulation, yield components, NPK uptake and utilization were investigated for the high-yielding cultivars in the three wheat production regions. [Result] Large variation of grain yield existed in each wheat production region, ranging from 7 751 to 8 702 kg hm−2 in northern Huanghuai, 7 302 to 8 413 kg·hm−2 in southern Huanghuai, and 5 554 to 6 294 kg·hm−2 in the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River. The high-yielding cultivars in northern Huanghuai were found to have higher biomass, harvest index and spike number than control cultivars; the high-yielding cultivars in southern Huanghuai had higher harvest index and grain number, and the high-yielding cultivars in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River had higher harvest index and 1 000-grain weight. Besides, in northern Huanghuai, the high-yielding cultivars showed lower grain N content and N requirement, and higher N physiological efficiency than control; in southern Huanghuai, the high-yielding cultivars showed lower stem and leaf P content and P requirement, higher P physiological efficiency and K content in stems and leaves; in the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River, the high-yielding cultivars showed lower K content in grain, higher K content in stem and leaf, P content in grain and stem and leaf, and N and P uptake in shoot, and lower P physiological efficiency and higher P requirement. [Conclusion] The elite high-yielding cultivars, such as Luyuan 118, Pumai 168 and Huamai 7, showed higher yield performance in northern Huanghuai, southern Huanghuai and the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River, respectively. In main wheat production regions of China, increasing shoot biomass and harvest index was the key to achieving high yield. Moreover, enhancing shoot nutrient uptake and nutrient harvest index was necessary to achieve high grain nutrition quality as well as high yield.
【Keywords】 wheat; cultivars; yield; yield components; nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium;
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